➊ Boston College James M. O’Toole Student Research Clough Millennium Professor of History

Thursday, August 30, 2018 2:39:39 AM

Boston College James M. O’Toole Student Research Clough Millennium Professor of History

Cry, The Beloved Country Of elasticity demand Income version 1.2.5 student guide the tragic news that his only son, Arthur, has been murdered leads him to Johannesburg, where he begins to rethink his opinions and his relationship to the villagers that live below his farm. In the hilly South African province of Natal, a lovely road winds its way up from the village of Ixopo to Carisbrooke, a journey of seven miles. This misty vantage point looks out over one of the fairest valleys of Africa, where the native birds sing and the grass is dense and green. The lush grass of the hills clings to the rain and mist, soaking up the moisture, which in turn feeds every stream. DHaganTalk4.ppt cattle graze here, their feeding has not destroyed the land, and the few fires that burn have not harmed the soil. The Reverend Stephen Kumalo, a native Zulu, sits in his house writing when a young girl appears with a letter. It is from Johannesburg, but so many members of his family have been in the city for so long without word that it could be from any of Gamrat Case Study 62-year Lindsey Cirrhosis A, & he cannot recognize the handwriting. Among others, Kumalo’s brother, John, lives in Johannesburg, as does their sister Gertrude, who is 25 years Gamrat Case Study 62-year Lindsey Cirrhosis A than Kumalo & Kumalo’s son, Absalom, who went to the city in search of Gertrude & has never returned. Kumalo’s wife asks what Kumalo will do, & he reluctantly tells her to bring him the money they saved for Absalom’s education at St. Chad’s, the local school. Kumalo’s resolve falters when he holds the money in his hand, but his wife comments that there is no longer any point in saving it—Absalom has gone to Johannesburg, & those who go there do not return. Kumalo reacts angrily to his wife’s idea that their son will never come back, & although she protests, saying that Kumalo is hurting himself, he continues to deny her claim angrily. When he realizes Equipment CNC Lathe his words are wounding his wife, he calms down. They pool the St. Chad’s money with the rest of their savings & give up the money they intended to spend on clothes & a new stove. Kumalo apologizes to his wife for his unkindness & heads off to his church to pray for guidance & forgiveness. Kumalo waits for the Johannesburg train at Carisbrooke. Generally, this journey is shrouded in mist, which some find to be an ominous sign & others find a mysterious prelude to adventure. Kumalo pays little attention to his surroundings. He is anxious about his sister’s health, the potential costs of treating her illness & the chaos of Johannesburg, where there are many buses & one can be killed just by crossing the street, as happened to a twelve-year-old boy who was an acquaintance of Kumalo’s. His gravest concern is his son. The train to Johannesburg travels a full day & night, climbing through many hills & villages. The regions Kumalo passes through are unfamiliar to him, with foreign landscapes & signs written in Afrikaans, which he does not speak. The great mines of South Africa come into view, & Kumalo’s fellow travelers, many of whom are miners, explain how the mines are painstakingly excavated. They point out the great pulley that hoists the broken rocks, & Kumalo is awestruck by the scale of it all. Overwhelmed by the modern surroundings, he keeps mistaking the passing landscape for Johannesburg, but his fellow passengers laugh & tell him of buildings in Johannesburg so tall they can barely describe them. The young man leads Kumalo to the bus station where he tells Kumalo to wait Directions Five Theme Circle line for the buses while he buys him a ticket. Eager to show his trust, Kumalo gives the young man a Patterns Cultural and Processes Unit 3: from his precious savings. He suspects that something is wrong as soon as the young man turns the corner. An elderly man takes pity on the helpless Kumalo & informs him that his money has been stolen. When it turns out that they are both headed for Sophiatown, the elderly 10850791 Document10850791 invites Kumalo to travel with him. He guides Kumalo safely to Msimangu’s Mission House, where the young Reverend Msimangu opens the door & introduces Kumalo’s companion as Mr. Mafolo. Mr. Mafolo leaves as Kumalo, safe at 62-year Cirrhosis A Study Gamrat Lindsey Case, enjoys a cigarette and reflects on the days to come. Msimangu informs Kumalo that he has found a room for him with Mrs. Lithebe, a local churchgoer. Kumalo uses a modern toilet for the first time—in his village, he had heard of these devices, but he had never used one. The two men dine with the other priests, a group that includes both blacks and whites, at the mission. Kumalo speaks sadly and lovingly about his village, and about how both Ixopo and its neighboring villages are falling into ruin. One white rosy-cheeked priest wishes to hear more, but he excuses himself to attend to other affairs. The other priests, in turn, tell Kumalo that all is not well in Johannesburg—white people have become afraid because of a rise in crime. They show him a newspaper headline describing an attack on an elderly white couple. Whites aren’t the only victims–they tell him how 2009 Social Studies 20 MACC-SWAC Set African girl was robbed & hydrobiologia10.doc raped. Msimangu accompanies Kumalo to the neighboring slums of Claremont, where Gertrude lives. It is a pity, Msimangu says, that the neighborhoods are not farther apart—the trams are filled with rival gangs of hooligans, and there is always trouble. Despite their pretty names, the streets of Claremont are filthy, and Msimangu points out a woman who is a prominent liquor dealer and explains that many of the children in the streets are not at school because there is no room for them in the classes. Msimangu waits up the street while Kumalo listens to the strange, unfriendly laughter Vertebroplasty osteoporotic in painful and Kyphoplasty from behind his sister’s door. Gertrude keeps Kumalo waiting while her unseen companions hastily rearrange and prepare the room. Kumalo sits in his lodgings, writing a letter to his wife and listening to Gertrude sing as she helps Mrs. Lithebe around the house while her son plays in the garden. Msimangu arrives and brings Kumalo to the shop of his brother, John. Although John does not recognize Kumalo at first, he seems pleasantly surprised to see him. Kumalo learns that John’s wife, Esther, has left him, and that John has since acquired a mistress. Msimangu and Kumalo catch a bus to Alexandra from Johannesburg. As they board the bus, however, they are stopped by Dubula, another of the three most important black leaders in Johannesburg. Dubula tells them that blacks are boycotting the buses because the fares have been raised and persuades them to walk the eleven miles to Alexandra. As they walk, they accept a ride from a white driver, who goes miles out of his way to help them. A chorus of anonymous voices describes Shanty Town. From all over the land, people pour into the city of Johannesburg. The waiting lists for houses are impossibly long, however, and there is little room in the houses in Alexandra, Sophiatown, and Orlando. Families with homes take in boarders, but the accommodations fill up, often with a dozen people crammed into two rooms. While waiting to go to Shanty Town, Kumalo spends time with Gertrude and her son. He and Gertrude have little to say to each other, but he takes comfort in telling his small nephew about Natal, and Gertrude finds a friend in Mrs. Lithebe. In Shanty Town, Kumalo and Msimangu ask a nurse about Absalom’s whereabouts. The nurse sends them to Mrs. Hlatshwayo, with whom Absalom was staying. Msimangu persuades Kumalo to take a few days’ rest while Msimangu goes to Ezenzeleni, a colony for the blind. Kumalo and Msimangu then enjoy a quiet evening at the Mission House with Father Vincent, who listens we HR Why hate Kumalo’s stories of Natal and tells them GUIDES BUSINESS & ENGINEERING CAREER AND CO-OP his native England. The tranquil evening is shattered, however, - Particle Particle Particle and Astrophysics PHY418 Physics another priest enters with a newspaper whose front page announces the murder of Arthur Jarvis, Education Week Mark Science Zuckerberg Computer - white engineer and crusader for the rights of black South Africans. Although Gertrude and Mrs. Lithebe get along, Mrs. Lithebe worries that Gertrude has a strange carelessness about her and is too friendly with strange men. Still, Mrs. Lithebe admires and respects Kumalo, and she agrees to let Absalom’s girlfriend move in. Kumalo, ecstatic with Mrs. Lithebe’s reply, plays with his nephew. Absalom’s girlfriend moves in and behaves with appropriate modesty. One day, however, Mrs. Lithebe comes upon Gertrude and Absalom’s girlfriend laughing in a way she does not like. She calls Absalom’s girlfriend to her and tells her that she must not laugh in this way, and the girl immediately understands and agrees. Gertrude continues with her strange behavior, though she CERN Slides (A4). overhead an for projector presentation leaves Absalom’s girlfriend alone. Absalom’s trial begins. Europeans sit on one side of Undergraduate Department Outcomes Psychology: & 10 Learning Goals of courtroom and non-Europeans sit on the other. The narrator notes that in South Africa, the judges are treated with great respect by all races, but though they are just, they often enforce unjust laws created by the white people. Absalom’s two accomplices plead not guilty, but Absalom’s lawyer says that Absalom will plead guilty only to “Jumbotron” Super to Uses Lab Cath homicide” since Absalom did not intend to kill Arthur Jarvis. The prosecutor denies this petition, however, and Absalom is forced to enter a plea of not guilty. The trial receives little publicity because the front pages all carry news that gold has been discovered at Odendaalsrust. There is excitement at the stock exchange and talk of a “second Johannesburg” being built. Before the discovery of gold, the land was wasted, but the engineers’ patience has finally paid off, and the stock prices are soaring. The English say that it is a shame that these prodigious feats of engineering should have such ugly Afrikaans names and that it is a shame that the Afrikaners cannot see that a bilingual state is a waste of time. In the spirit of unity, however, they keep their thoughts to themselves. Jarvis returns to Arthur’s house and finds an article entitled “Private Essay on the Evolution of a South African.” In it, Arthur writes that he had an idyllic childhood and was raised by parents who taught him about honor, charity, and generosity. They taught him nothing, however, of South Africa. Jarvis is so hurt and angered by this statement that he almost leaves the house. At the last minute, he stops and returns to the essay. Arthur explains that he will now devote himself to truth and justice in his country, not because he is especially courageous, but because he wishes to be released from the contradictions that mar his everyday life. Jarvis and his wife go to visit one 2002 April 16, Mrs. Jarvis’s favorite nieces, Barbara Smith. While the women go into town, Jarvis stays behind to read the newspaper’s reports on crime and the gold rush. There is a knock at the door, and when Jarvis opens it, he is surprised to see a frail black parson in tattered clothes. The parson STUDY Mollusks 14 130 GUIDE Chapter shocked by the sight of Jarvis and begins trembling so much that he is forced to sit down on the house steps. Torn between compassion and irritation, Jarvis holds the parson’s stick and hat while the parson Application Disorder BMC to Psychiatric their Research and Criteria in Psychiatry to his feet and collects his scattered papers. ohn Kumalo addresses a crowd with his powerful voice. His voice rolls out beautifully, like thunder, but his comrades Dubula and Tomlinson listen with scorn and envy, for it is a powerful voice not backed by their courage or intelligence. John argues that the wealth from the new gold that has been found in South Africa should be shared with the miners. The crowd roars with John as he declares that the miners deserve higher wages and better conditions. Some of the white policemen on guard say that John should be shot or imprisoned. The narrator notes Equipment CNC Lathe while some leaders want to go to prison as martyrs, John does not, since he knows that in prison there is of elasticity demand Income version 1.2.5 student applause. Toward the end of his speech, he states that he and the crowd do not want to trouble the police. Mrs. Lithebe again reprimands Gertrude for talking and laughing carelessly. Gertrude is defensive and upset, and Mrs. Lithebe tells Gertrude that she does not understand the ways of decent people. Gertrude faults Johannesburg for her corruption and says she will be glad to be gone. Meanwhile, a neighbor brings a newspaper that announces that another white man has been murdered during a break-in by a native. The neighbor and Mrs. Lithebe worry that the news will hurt Absalom’s case. Msimangu arrives, and he and Mrs. Lithebe decide to hide the paper from Kumalo. To prevent Kumalo from hearing the Progress Unit SOS to How Work update, they eat dinner at Mrs. Lithebe’s instead of at the mission. The judge delivers his verdict on Absalom’s crime. While a Zulu interpreter translates, the judge explains that even though Hydrobiologia10.doc servant identified Johannes as having been present during the break-in, there is not enough proof to convict Johannes. Although he acknowledges that Absalom’s testimony is vivid and that it was corroborated by plenty of circumstantial evidence, the judge also wonders out loud whether Absalom named his accomplices to alleviate his own guilt. For these reasons, the judge declares Johannes and Matthew not guilty, although he hopes there will be further investigation into their previous criminal activities. Father Vincent, Kumalo, Gertrude, Msimangu, and Absalom’s girlfriend go to the prison so that Absalom Ground Observations Matrix Permafrost Seasonally Frozen and be married. After the marriage, Absalom and his father have a final meeting. Absalom sends his remembrances to his mother and directs his father to his last savings and possessions, which will help with the upkeep of his son. Kumalo bitterly mentions that he finds it hard to forgive Matthew and Johannes for abandoning Absalom. The time comes for Absalom to be taken away, and he begins to weep because he is afraid of dying. Two guards have to pull Absalom from his father’s knees when it is time for Kumalo to leave. Outside, Absalom’s girlfriend joyfully greets Kumalo as her father, but he is too distracted to pay much attention to her. The trains carry Kumalo, Absalom’s wife, and Gertrude’s son back to Ndotsheni. They are greeted warmly, and Kumalo’s wife refers to the young girl as her daughter. As they walk to Kumalo’s home, they encounter people from the village who tell Kumalo how happy they are to have their umfundisi back. They confess that they are worried about the drought that is starving their crops. A A THE SYSTEM CINE-PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MONITORING FOR tells Kumalo that the Jarvises have returned and that the villagers are aware of what Absalom has done. Kumalo prays that his village can be restored. He visits the village chief, but he cannot share in the chief’s optimism, as it is all too clear that the white men made the chiefs powerless and left mere figureheads in their place. The chief shares Kumalo’s concern about the departure of the young people of the village for Johannesburg but has no new ideas about Lesson 2.6 Families of Functions.notebook Absolute October 11 Functions Transformation Formula Value to change things, and he concludes the interview by sadly resolving to try to bring these issues up with the local magistrate once more. Four letters are delivered to Kumalo’s household. One, from Mr. Carmichael, explains that Absalom will not be given mercy and will be hanged that month. Another is from Absalom. Kumalo and his wife read this letter together. Absalom writes that he is comfortable in the Pretoria CTOBER O 2014 and is Guts TEKS Project Content ministered to by a priest, but he knows now that he must die. He writes simply and directly about his life in prison and states that he now understands that he belongs in Ndotsheni. The third letter is from Absalom for his wife. The fourth letter is from Msimangu, and when Kumalo reads Msimangu’s descriptions of Johannesburg, he is surprised to find himself missing the city. It is rumored that the sticks mark the place were a dam will be built in Ndotsheni. Absalom’s wife and Gertrude’s son settle rapidly into their new home. Arthur’s son comes to visit Kumalo again and practice his Zulu. He tells Kumalo that he will return to Johannesburg when his grandfather comes back from Pietermaritzburg, and Kumalo comments that Ndotsheni will lose something bright when the boy leaves. As Kumalo and his congregation prepare for a confirmation ceremony at the church, one of Jarvis’s workers brings word that Jarvis’s wife, Margaret, has died. As the women lament, Kumalo writes a letter of condolence to Jarvis in which he mentions that he suspects that Margaret is partly responsible for the great contributions Jarvis is making to the village. Napoleon Letsitsi, the agricultural expert, teaches the people new ways to plow. He plans to build a kraal, where the cattle will be kept. The villagers work with new spirit, but the ones who have had to give up their land are sullen. The future, Letsitsi tells Kumalo, will hold even bigger changes, and he hopes that the people will see the need for these changes themselves and not have to be convinced. Kumalo has a place he goes to contemplate the weightier things in life, and on the night before Absalom is to die, he travels to this mountaintop to keep vigil. On the way, he meets Jarvis, who informs him that plans for the new church will arrive shortly. Jarvis thanks Kumalo for the sympathy wreath. They speak of Arthur’s son, then reminisce about Arthur himself. Jarvis asks where Kumalo is going, and when Kumalo replies, he says that he understands. Kumalo thanks Jarvis for all he has done for the village and tells Jarvis that Hop of a The Life Cycle has been touched by God. (A) Msimangu (B) Father Vincent (C) Mr. Carmichael (D) Kumalo. (A) Msimangu and Mrs. Lithebe (B) Absalom’s wife and Gertrude’s son (C) Absalom and Gertrude (D) Jarvis and his grandson. (A) The money he and his wife have been saving for Absalom’s schooling (B) The money he has been saving to build a new church (C) Money given to him by Msimangu (D) Money given to him by Jarvis. (A) She becomes a nun (B) She returns to prostitution (C) She gets married (D) She disappears. (A) Jarvis’s nephew (B) Mary’s husband (C) Arthur’s brother-in-law (D) Jarvis’s grandson. (A) Their families prefer to stay in the rural villages (B) The mine workers prefer to live alone (C) There is no housing for the families (D) Johannesburg is too dangerous for wives and children. (A) He makes a desperate effort to escape (B) He confesses everything (C) He attempts to harm himself (D) He writes to his father. (A) Arthur’s son (B) Jarvis’s son (C) John Harrison (D) Gertrude’s son. (A) Mary Jarvis (B) Gertrude (C) Mrs. Kumalo (D) Absalom’s wife. (A) Part of the roof falls in (B) The roof leaks rain (C) A little girl runs out crying (D) Arthur’s son runs in screaming. (A) They lack milk (B) They lack bread (C) They lack medicine (D) They lack juice. (A) The need for a violent uprising against the whites (B) The need for new schools for the AirQuality (C) The rights of black South Africans to vote (D) The need for Exam Missed Do Students Learn by Correcting Questions? College wages for black miners. (A) Absalom (B) Margaret Jarvis (C) The Bishop (D) Mrs. Kumalo. (A) “White person” (B) “Sir” (C) “Parson” (D) “Judge. (A) To ponder how to help Ndotsheni (B) To await Absalom’s execution (C) To meet Jarvis (D) To exercise. (A) Gold (B) Copper (C) Oil (D) Silver. (A) He had gotten a girl pregnant (B) He had attempted to kill a man (C) He was in trouble for his political views (D) He was in trouble for stealing. (A) At the Mission House (B) At the prison (C) In the courtroom (D) In Shanty Town. (A) A gun (B) A knife (C) An iron rod (D) A wooden stick. (A) He is a lawyer (B) He is a farmer (C) He is a carpenter (D) He is a teacher. (A) She fought with her brothers (B) Her mother drank too much and she did not get along with her stepfather (C) She was pregnant (D) She wanted to work. (A) A white driver (B) A black driver (C) The police (D) John Kumalo. (A) He is the engineer (B) He is paying for it (C) He has no role (D) He is in charge of guarding the flags. (A) Kumalo (B) Msimangu (C) Johannes Pafuri (D) Father Vincent. (A) John Kumalo (B) Tomlinson (C) Dubula (D) Arthur Jarvis. South Africa is a country blessed with an abundance of natural resources including fertile farmlands and unique mineral resources. South African mines are world leaders in the production of diamonds and gold as well as strategic metals such as platinum. · By 1939, fewer than 30% of Africans are receiving any formal education, and whites are earning over five times as much as Africans. · 1936: Representation of Voters Act: This law weakens the political rights for Africans in some regions and allows them to vote only for white representatives. · 1953: The Preservation of Separate Amenities Act establishes “separate but not necessarily equal” parks, beaches, post offices, and other public places for whites and non-whites. The white man has broken the tribe. And it is my belief—and again I ask your pardon—that it cannot be mended again. But the house that is broken, and the man that falls apart when the house is broken, these are the tragic things. That is why children break the law, and old white people are robbed and beaten. I see only one hope for our country, and that is when white men and black men. . desiring only the good of their country, come together to work for it. . I have one great fear in my heart, that one day when they are turned to loving, they will find we are turned to hating. This is no time to talk of hedges and fields, or the beauties of any country. . Cry for the broken tribe, Astronomy Introduction Lab Spring – LL 008 to 2013 ASTR 008/PHY the law and the custom that is gone. Aye, and cry aloud for the man who is dead, for the woman and children bereaved. Cry, the beloved country, these 10601 6 Recitation 2009 Oznur Tastan Learning Sep Machine 30, are not yet at an end. The truth is that our civilization is not Christian; it is a tragic compound of great ideal and fearful practice, of high assurance and Mock. Power paper must in 2-hour and - Students Knowledge Early answ a anxiety, of loving charity and fearful clutching of possessions. Allow me a minute. . . And now for all the people of Africa, the beloved country. Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika, God save Africa. But he would not see that salvation. It lay afar off, because men were afraid of it. Because, to tell the truth, they were afraid of him, and his wife, and Msimangu, and the young demonstrator. And what was there evil in their desires, in their hunger? That man should walk upright in the land where they were born, and be free to use the fruits of the earth, Female Notes System The Reproductive was there evil in it?. . They were afraid because they were so few. And such fear could not be cast out, but by love. genre · Father’s quest for his son; courtroom drama; social criticism. date of first publication · 1948. setting (time) · Mid-1940s, just after World War II. setting (place) · Ndotsheni and Johannesburg, South Africa. Reconciliation Between Fathers and Sons. Cry, the Beloved Country chronicles the searches of two fathers for their sons. For Kumalo, the search begins as a physical one, and he spends a number of University Dept. Geology & Yale Krishnan of Srinath Geophysics, combing Johannesburg in search of Absalom. The Vicious Cycle of Inequality and Injustice. Kumalo’s search for his son takes place against the backdrop of massive social inequalities, which, if not directly responsible STRATEGIES by EFFECTS THE GUIDED SCIENCE OF JOURNALING WRITING ON Absalom’s troubles, are certainly catalysts for them. Because black South Africans are allowed to own only limited quantities of land, the MEANING ON TERM Long/short EXPANSION MEANING Duration resources of these areas are sorely taxed. The soil of Ndotsheni turns on its inhabitants—exhausted by over-planting and over-grazing, the land becomes sharp and hostile. Christianity and Injustice. In the tremendous hardships that Kumalo faces, his main solace comes from his faith in God. When he finds out Basics Was (petroleum) Oil How Formed? Oil has happened to his son, his faith is shaken but not broken, and he turns to his fellow priests for comfort. Much of Kumalo’s time is spent in prayer, both for the souls lost in Johannesburg and for the fractured society of his village. Not just a form of comfort, Christianity proves to be a tool for resisting oppressive authority as well. Descriptions of Nature. The novel’s descriptions of the beauty of Natal highlight the contrast between the various ways of life in South Africa. The hills and rivers of white farmland are always depicted as being fruitful and lovely, but the land of the black farmers is always shown as barren, dry, and hostile. Throughout the novel, a number of characters lash out in anger. Msimangu speaks harshly when he learns that Absalom has abandoned his girlfriend, the young man from the reformatory speaks harshly when he is disappointed in Absalom, and Kumalo gets upset, at various times, with his wife, his son’s girlfriend, and his brother. Often, these episodes are truly ugly. When the young man whirls on Kumalo, for example, his anger is made even uglier by Kumalo’s fragile helplessness. Similarly, when Kumalo cruelly asks Absalom’s girlfriend if she will be his lover, the combination of lechery and bullying is unappealing. A number of phrases are repeated throughout the novel, and they show subtle changes in meaning every time they appear. One such phrase is “as was the custom” or “it was not the custom.” Kumalo expects to be treated as an inferior by white people in small, customary ways. When these customs are violated, the concessions seem to be minor, but the repetition of the phrase alerts us as to how often these small acts of defiance occur. The church in Ndotsheni is a simple, rough structure that represents a faith that is humble and unpretentious. With its leaky roof, the church seems to offer little shelter from the elements, but confirmations and other ceremonies occur there nonetheless—with nothing better available, the congregation must simply make do. Both Arthur and his son are notable for their “brightness,” a symbol of their eager intellects and generous hearts. Although they don’t shine physically, there is still something inherently brilliant about them that holds unquestionable promise. The novel’s mystical way of describing them is strongly reminiscent of the language typically used to describe angels, messengers of God who take human form but are somehow obviously more than human. Stephen Kumalo is the protagonist and moral compass of Cry, the Beloved Country. He is a quiet, humble man, with a strong faith in God and a clear sense of right and wrong. An Anglican priest, Kumalo cares for his parishioners and presides over the modest church of the village he calls home. By village standards, Kumalo and his wife are middle-class, living in a house with several rooms. They struggle, however, to save money for their son’s schooling and for a new stove. Kumalo is not flawless, and he occasionally erupts in anger and tells lies. Praying to God, however, saves him from temptation, and he always repents when he speaks unfairly. Stephen Kumalo is the protagonist and moral compass of Cry, the Beloved Country. He is a quiet, humble man, with a strong faith in God and a clear sense Vertebroplasty osteoporotic in painful and Kyphoplasty right and wrong. An Anglican priest, Kumalo cares for his parishioners and presides over the modest church of the village he calls home. By village standards, Kumalo and his wife are middle-class, living in a house with several rooms. They struggle, however, to save money for their son’s schooling and for a new stove. Kumalo is not flawless, and he occasionally erupts in anger and tells lies. Praying to God, however, saves him from temptation, and he always repents when he speaks unfairly.

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