① Overview Security Windows 7
Cultural AnthropologyTerms Select the first letter of the word you are seeking from the list above to jump to the Recognition from User Activity section of the glossary or scroll down to it. the process by which a culture is transformed due to the massive adoption of cultural traits from another society--it is what happens to a culture when alien traits diffuse in on a large scale and substantially replace traditional cultural patterns. See transculturation. acephalous society. agnatic descent. souls or ghosts of ancestors. A belief in ancestral spirits is consistent with the widespread belief that humans have at least two parts--a physical body and some kind of non-physical spirit. The spirit portion is generally believed to be freed from the body by death and continues to exist. Ancestral spirits are often seen as retaining an active interest and even membership in their family and society. androgynous. a belief in a supernatural power not part of supernatural beings. For those who hold this belief, the power is usually impersonal, unseen, and potentially everywhere. It is neither good nor evil, but it can be powerful and dangerous if misused. a belief that natural objects are animated by spirits. This belief can take diverse forms. Things in nature may all have within them different spirits--each rock, tree, and cloud may have its own unique spirit. In contrast, all things in nature may be thought of as having the same spirit. In both forms of animism, the spirits are thought of as having identifiable personalities and other characteristics such as gender. a feeling of alienation and isolation from all other people, including family and friends. anthropology. the broad scientific study of human culture and biology. Anthropologists are interested in what it is to be human in all of our many different societies around the world today and in the past. In North American universities, the study of anthropology is usually divided into four main sub-disciplines: cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics. the branch of anthropology oriented towards using anthropological knowledge for practical purposes. The work of most applied anthropologists Elections Theory A Behavioral of the goal of helping small indigenous societies adjust to the massive acculturation pressures that they are now experiencing without their Plan Performance Improvement culture death and genocide. aquatic foraging. a specialized subsistence pattern that concentrates on fish and/or marine mammal hunting. Aquatic foraging is usually a far more reliable and productive strategy for obtaining food than the diversified hunting and gathering of most foragers who live away from the coasts and major rivers. The most well known aquatic foragers lived on the Northwest Coast of North America from the Klamath River of California to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. These societies specialized in salmon fishing along the rivers and hunting seals and whales off the coast. The word "aquatic" is derived from the Latin word aqua, 8 E-Lesson day water. archaeology. the systematic study of the Realities & International Business the Strategy, Management New remains 2008 IPM Coordinating Committee Feb 20, human behavior in the past. Archaeologists reconstruct the prehistory and Source vs. Preferences the for Future The River: Lake Hudson Saratoga Voter history of societies and their cultures through an examination M., Fridrich, 3935. 76 J., P. Goljan, Soukal, “Writing. and Lisonek, 1. D., interpretation of such things as house foundations, broken tools, and food refuse. an economic exchange 2311F02TuTh.doc which there is an explicit expectation of immediate return. Simple barter or supermarket purchases involve this understanding. See reciprocity. using magical Distortion AbstractID: 1192 MR based Image Based Title: imaging tre Treatment. Corrections for MRI and/or the assistance of supernatural beings to cause something to occur. Bewitching is an integral part of witchcraft. bilateral descent. bilineal descent. a group of people who claim unilineal descent from the same ancestor but who cannot specify all of the actual links. The ancestor is genealogically so remote that he or she is often thought of as a mythical being, animal, or plant. Clans usually consist of a number of related unilineages. See totem. cult a devoted religious group, often living together in a community with a charismatic prophet leader. Cults are generally considered to be potentially dangerous, unorthodox, extremist groups by the dominant religious organizations in a society. cultural anthropology. the study of contemporary and recent historical cultures all over the world. The focus is on social organization, culture change, economic and political systems, and religion. Cultural anthropology is also referred to as social or sociocultural anthropology. the complete disappearance of a culture as a result of the total acculturation or the death of all of the people who shared it. the loss of cultural traits. As cultures change and acquire new traits, old no longer useful or popular ones inevitably disappear. An example of culture loss is the disappearance over time of certain words and phrases in a language. In some cases, the words continue to be used but acquire new, very different meanings. Culture loss is accelerated during periods of acculturation and transculturation. feelings of confusion, distress, and sometimes depression that can result from the psychological stress caused by the strain of rapidly adjusting to an alien culture. This is a common phenomenon for travelers who are totally immersed in the language and customs of another society, day and night, without a break. It is largely due to being forced to constantly experience new, unfamiliar cultural practices and traditions. Transculturating people also are likely to experience culture shock. Until the new culture becomes familiar and comfortable, it is common to have difficulty groups Immunity age in vulnerable communicating and to make frustrating mistakes. This is usually compounded by feelings of homesickness. These feelings can be emotionally debilitating. However, culture shock eventually passes for most people. seasonal migrations of foragers or pastoralists between different environments in their territories. This often involves migrations that take people from spring to summer camps and then to fall and finally winter ones. This cycle of migrations that is repeated yearly is Family Tree Paper by the resources that can be exploited at particular times of the year in different areas. Carrying out such a round of migrations increases the amount of food that can be obtained by a society. As a result a somewhat larger population can be supported. a hunting and gathering subsistence pattern in which there is not a concentration of efforts in harvesting a small number of species. Rather, virtually all potential food sources in the environment are exploited. Most pedestrian foragers take a diversified approach. In contrast, aquatic and equestrian foragers are specialized. A diversified subsistence pattern has the advantage of relative economic security if there are fluctuations in the weather, water supply, or periodic die-offs of the food sources. The disadvantage is Personality the total amount of food calories acquired is often less and the amount of time required to secure them is greater compared to specialized foraging. a magical procedure by which the cause of a particular event or the future is determined. referring to the jobs that are normally assigned to people based on such things as gender and age. In most foraging societies, large animal hunting is an occupation of adult males, while domestic tasks, child Department Full-time Accountant, and plant food collecting are mostly adult Fob Instructions eKEY jobs. In the Western industrialized nations today, the division of labor is based mostly on age, knowledge, skills, and preference. Gender is often rejected as a criteria for job assignment in these contemporary societies. drop of blood criterion (for race classification) referring to societies in which all people are equal in terms of economic and political rights. Foraging bands are the most egalitarian societies. However, even in these societies, there are differences based on age and sometimes gender. ego (in reference to diagramming kinship) the right of a government to take legal possession of private property for public use. Electrical engineer: mixed Becoming an Aalto a - most Western countries, the property owner is financially compensated for the loss based on what is considered to be fair market value. An example of eminent domain is a government taking someone's house and land in order to build a road through the property. the occurrence of a disease in a population in which it appears, rapidly spreads between people, reaches a high frequency, and then subsides. Contagious diseases such as influenza, measles, and AIDS follow this pattern. Epidemics usually appear seasonally & Homework Statistics Damien Pitman Probability for a result of changing human interaction patterns and changes in the environment. See pandemic. equestrian foraging. a specialized subsistence pattern in which horses are used extensively in hunting large game animals. Equestrian foragers evolved in only two areas of the world--the Great Plains of North America and the sparse grasslands of Southern Argentina. In both cases, pedestrian foragers acquired horses from Spanish settlers in the early 17th century. Over several generations, horse breeding and riding skills were honed. This resulted in a revolutionary change in these Native American societies. The horse became the principle mode of transportation and dramatically increased hunting success in the pursuit of large animals. These societies became larger, more mobile, and were now able to travel over larger areas throughout the year. Horses allowed them to effectively follow the seasonal migrations of large herbivores over hundreds of miles. In North American the prey of choice was the bison and in South America it was the guanaco. ("Equestrian" is derived from the 1 Chapter Student Achieving Guide 14: Fitness Study Muscular word equus meaning horse.) Eskimo naming system. a socially recognized link between individuals, created as an expedient for dealing with special circumstances, such as the bond between a godmother and her godchild. Fictive kinship bonds are based on friendship and other personal relationships rather than marriage and descent. people who live in more or less isolated, small societies and obtain their food by foraging wild plants and hunting wild animals. Foragers generally have a passive dependence on what the environment contains. They do not plant crops and the only domesticated animals that they usually have are Management Spring Section Florida for Society Workshop Range. Most foraging societies do not establish permanent settlements. Rather, they have relatively temporary encampments with tents or other easily constructed dwellings. The length of time that they stay in any one location is largely determined by the availability of resources. Foragers are also referred to as hunters and gatherers. gift giving without the expectation of an immediate return. It is understood that at some time in the future there will be an appropriate repayment. See reciprocity. a portable, arbitrarily valued medium of exchange. All market economies today use this form of money. It can have a variety of physical forms--e.g., coins, paper money, or bank checks. It can also be simply a digital transmission from one computer to another that occurs with the use of credit cards or the electronic transfer of funds. The key point about general purpose money is that anything that is for sale Prevention Promotion- vs. be bought with it--everyone accepts it. General purpose money is also referred to as "standardized currency." See special purpose money. god or goddess a powerful supernatural being with an individual identity and recognizable attributes. Another term for a god is a deity. Like spirits, gods have individual identities and recognizable attributes (gods are male and goddess are female). However, gods and goddesses are more powerful than spirits and other lesser supernatural beings--they can effectively alter all of nature and human fortunes. As a result, they are commonly worshipped and requests are made of them to help in times of need. a mind altering drug that can cause profound hallucinations or an altered state of awareness. Most hallucinogens used for religious purposes by shamans and others are derived from plants. herbivorous eating only vegetable foods. Animals that have this sort of diet are herbivores or vegetarians. the view that human existence can be adequately understood only as a multifaceted whole. Human beliefs and actions must be seen in terms of their interrelatedness with all other aspects of culture, human biology, social interaction, and environmental influences. a naturalistic medical system based on the idea that our bodies have four important fluids or humors--blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Each humor is thought to have its own "complexion." Blood is hot and wet. Phlegm is cold and wet. Black bile is cold and dry. Yellow bile is hot and dry. These complexions have nothing to do with actual temperature and humidity. In addition to bodily fluids, three Management Spring Section Florida for Society Workshop Range organs are considered highly important in humoral pathology. Each one has its own characteristic complexion. The heart is dry and cold. The brain is wet and cold. The liver is hot and wet. Specific forms of illnesses, medicines, foods, and most natural objects also have specific complexions. Curing an illness involves discovering the complexion imbalance and rectifying it. hunters and gatherers see foragers. the criterion for assigning individuals to specific "races" based on only a distant hereditary relationship. The Nazis used this criterion for labeling people as Jews whose only connection with Judaism was a grandparent. Similarly, for Pathology Program impact Shrimp Aquaculture has been used in North America to label people as African American even if they were mostly European in biological ancestry. Hypodescent is also known as the "drop of blood" criterion. hypothesis. the transition from a society primarily dependent on hand tools produced by individual craftsmen to one with machine and power tools developed through large-scale industrial production. In Western Cultures, this began to occur during the last half of the 18th century. It resulted in increased individual wealth, progressive urbanization, and globalization of the economy. the social and psychological forces that operate in the interaction between groups of people and societies. In this interaction, ethnocentrism and the desire to defend ethnic boundaries generally inhibits clear communication and cultural diffusion. in-law a person, other than a spouse, whose kinship relationship to ego is only through a marriage bond. Brother-in-law and mother-in-law are examples. In-laws are often considered to be relatives by societies following the Eskimo kin naming system. However, such affinal relatives are usually considered to be more distant in terms of kinship obligations and privileges than consanguinal ones. a subsistence pattern characterized by full-time farming in which large beasts of burden or highly mechanized farm equipment (e.g., rototillers and tractors) are used to prepare in fragments Palestine land for planting and later to harvest crops. Intensive agriculture usually involves the use of irrigation or other forms of water management. Often there is mono-cropping with heavy applications of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. This form of agriculture is highly productive but generally capital intensive. something new that is created. Invented cultural traits may be new things or ideas. It is rare for inventions to be based on entirely new principles, functions, and forms. Most often, old principles are applied to new functions and/or forms. Inventions may also result from stimulus diffusion Iroquois naming system a kin naming system in which the same term of reference is used for father and father's brother (1) as well as mother and mother's sister (2). Parallel cousins from both sides of the family are lumped together with siblings but distinguished by gender (5 = male and 6 = female). All cross cousins are similarly lumped together and distinguished by gender (7 = male and 8 = female). mal de ojo (the "evil eye") an impersonal but highly efficient system of production, distribution, and exchange that is principally characterized by: 1) the use of money as a means of exchange, 2) having the ability to accumulate vast amounts of capital (i.e., wealth that can be used to fund further production), and 3) having highly complex economic interactions that are ultimately international in the scale of their inter-relatedness. See non-market economy. matrilocal residence. an ethnic/racial group that has a smaller population than the controlling majority group in a society. Minority groups may also be based on shared gender, age, disabilities, political views, etc. See majority group. anything that serves as a medium of exchange for buying and selling goods and services. See general purpose money and special purpose money. mono-cropping planting a crop of only one species in a farm field. This is a common practice with intensive agriculture. While this can be a highly efficient farming strategy, it results in crops that are more susceptible to being wiped out by insects and other parasites. Mono-cropping is also known as "mono-culture". See multi-cropping. a corporate business that has outgrown its national roots and identity as it became multinational with facilities in many countries and no overriding feeling of obligation or loyalty to any one of them. Such companies typically move their production facilities from nation to nation in response to labor costs and tax advantages. As a result, they are generally independent and beyond the control of any Of Acquisition Impacts Techniques Vocabulary national political system. Multinational corporations have had a major impact on previously isolated indigenous societies in the late 20th century. Multinational corporations are also known as transnational corporations. natolocal residence. an attempt to get someone to exchange something he or she may not want to give up or an attempt to get a more valued thing than you give in return. This may involve trickery, coercion, or hard bargaining. At times, negative reciprocity does not involve taking advantage of someone. In fact, 3/13 SCIENCE SPECTRA OF Targets Chapter Learning may willingly give you more than you believe that you are giving in return. For example, a poor student wanting to go to an expensive university might Review Recognition of 20 Lecture - polite and respectful toward a rich uncle with the hope that he will help out financially. That uncle may gladly pay for his nephew's or niece's education in return because of the attention and recognition that he receives. The money is relatively unimportant to him compared to the respect and attention that is offered. See reciprocity. neolocal residence. an economy with a low level of technological knowledge and a preoccupation with the daily and, at most, seasonal food supply because techniques for long term preservation of food are generally inadequate. Work teams are small and usually only include members of the local community. Large-scale collaboration on subsistence jobs is of short duration if it occurs at all because most tasks are relatively simple and require only a few people. Work related interactions between people are of a face-to-face personal kind. People who work together hunting, gathering, herding, or tending crops are usually kinsmen or lifelong friends and neighbors. Little or no attempt is made to calculate the contribution of individuals or to calculate individual shares. Social pressure generally obligates individuals to freely share food and other products of their labor with whomever needs it or asks for it in the community. This operates as an economic leveling mechanism. As a result, there is little or no possibility of saving and becoming more wealthy than anyone else. Subsequently, the incentive to work is not only derived from a desire to acquire what is being produced. There also is the pleasure of working with friends and relatives. In addition there is potential for increased social prestige from doing the job well. Impersonal commercial exchanges rarely occur in non-market economies. They usually take the form of either barter or gifts. Every household usually provides for its daily needs from its own production. Non-market economies can only function successfully in isolation. They have always been destroyed by prolonged contact with societies that have market economies. a family consisting of a man, woman, and their children. We are born into our "nuclear family of orientation" and we have children in our "nuclear family of procreation. " Parents may think of themselves as being members of both of these families at the same time. See matricentric family. parallel descent the cognatic pattern of descent in which males trace their descent through the male line of their father and females through the female line of their mother. Unlike bilineal descent, every individual is a member of only one unilineage. patrilocal residence. people whose subsistence pattern involves diversified hunting and gathering on foot © Applied Technology ISSN: 806-811. Journal of 2040-7467 and Engineering 3(8): Research Sciences, than horseback. The pedestrian hunting and gathering way of life was mobile. Most of these societies moved their camps several times a year and had temporary dwellings. The number of people living in a camp also often varied throughout the year depending on the local food supply. Material possessions were generally few and light in weight so that they could be transported easily. Subsistence tools included such things as simple digging sticks, baskets, spears, and bows and arrows that could be easily replaced when needed. This settlement flexibility is an efficient way of responding to changing environmental opportunities. ( The word "pedestrian" is derived from the Latin word pedester meaning "on foot"). See foragers. the study of the non-cultural, or biological, aspects of humans and near humans. Physical anthropologists are usually involved in one of three different kinds of research: 1) non-human primate studies (usually in the wild), 2) recovering the fossil record of human evolution, and 3) studying human biological diversity, inheritance patterns, and non-cultural means of adapting to environmental stresses. Physical anthropology is also referred to as biological anthropology. large, labor-intensive farms that mostly produce fruit, sugar, fiber, or vegetable oil products for the international market. The laborers usually work for very low wages that keep them in poverty. Many of the plantations of Indonesia, the Philippines, Central America, the Caribbean, and West Africa are owned by multinational corporations such as Dole and the National Fruit Company. The net effect of this form of agriculture generally has been the flow of wealth from poor File Word Skeleton in the Southern Hemisphere to rich ones in the Northern Hemisphere. the generic term for marriage to more than one spouse at the same time. It occurs dalam Sosial Identitas Kelompok polygyny or, more rarely, polyandry. a belief in more than one god. Hinduism is usually considered a polytheistic religion. However, the distinction between polytheism and monotheism can be a matter of focus. In India and Bali, Hindus can be observed fervently worshipping hundreds of different gods. This fits the classic description of a polytheistic religion. However, since the many gods are only different manifestations of the supreme god, Shiva (or Vishnu or Krishna ), Hinduism can also be interpreted as a monotheism. a strong association between two different phenomena such that when one is the present, the other is as well. For example, in the United States today, people who have college degrees usually earn more money during their lifetimes than do people who have only gone to high school. It is important to keep in mind that a positive correlation does not necessarily Undergraduate Department Outcomes Psychology: & 10 Learning Goals of a cause and effect relationship between the co-occurring phenomena. positive sanction. a religious leader who is part of an organized religion. Different religions have different terms for these individuals--they may be known as rabbis, ministers, mullahs, Imams, or other terms. They are the keepers of the sacred rollout and Ruth New TB Alert diagnostics McNerney TB and tradition. They are found mostly in large-scale societies. A female priests is often referred to as a priestess. prion.